Node Implementation - Voting¶
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When a block is processed, Principal Representatives evaluate whether they can generate a vote for the block (dependent blocks already confirmed, etc.). If they can, they generate the vote and publish to all other PRs they are aware of in addition to
2*sqrt(peers) of non-PR nodes. To reduce the load on PRs nodes, they do not republish incoming votes - only Non-PR nodes republish other votes to
1/2*sqrt(peers) to ensure enough coverage across the rest of the network.
Due to the direct 1:1 relationship between PR nodes, their latency is mostly geographic/network based. For Non-PRs, there is some gossiping via the random distribution, so the number of hops required is what makes up a majority of the latency and the geographic and network latency is less of a factor.
Nodes will treat votes differently depending on the value of their timestamp field, which results in two phases of voting. These votes can be considered non-final votes and final votes.
Non-final votes are generated when a node is ready to vote on a block and it has not seen enough vote weight to reach quorum. This non-final vote will have the current Unix time stamp in seconds in the timestamp field.
Once quorum is reached from votes received, the node will then generate a new final vote for the same block where the timestamps field contains the maximum value possible:
In the above cases when evaluating quorum for generating a final vote, both non-final votes and final votes can be included. But a node will only consider a block confirmed when quorum is reached with all final votes. At that point the triggering of confirmation notifications, updating of confirmation heights, etc. occurs.
The rep crawler is a repeating process to help track the online (actively voting) status of representatives. Although typical network activity highly propagates votes to many nodes on the network, there is no guarantee that a given node will receive a recent vote from a particular representative.
To help fill these potential gaps in online status, the rep crawler pulls a set of random representatives from its peers list - either 15 entries if the weight of peers is higher than quorum delta, otherwise 50 entries - and sends confirmation requests to them for a randomly chosen block in the local ledger.
If the confirmation acknowledgement is returned for those peers they will be considered online and actively voting. This ongoing crawl happens every 7 seconds on the live, beta and test networks, and every 0.1 seconds on the dev network for unit test purposes.
Online weight calculator¶
Whenever a vote signed by a particular representative is processed by the node, it will consider that representative to be online and included in the online weight calculations. This online status will remain for a period of 5 minutes after the vote processing and the clock will reset back to 5 minutess when additional voting is seen.
This online status is counted regardless of where the vote originated from - the rep crawler, live voting activity, etc.
Active transactions loop¶
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